Glossary

Senescence

the endogenous and hereditary process of accumulative changes to molecular and cellular structure disrupting metabolism with the passage of time, resulting in deterioration and death. Senescence occurs both on the level of the whole organism (organismal senescence) as well as on the level of its individual cells (cellular senescence). The science of biological aging is biogerontology.

Stem Cell

Stem cells are biological cells found in all multicellular organisms, that can divide (through mitosis) and differentiate into diverse specialized cell types and can self-renew to produce more stem cells. In mammals, there are two broad types of stem cells: embryonic stem cells, which are isolated from the inner cell mass of blastocysts, and adult stem cells, which are found in various tissues. In adult organisms, stem cells and progenitor cells act as a repair system for the body, replenishing adult tissues. In a developing embryo, stem cells can differentiate into all the specialized cells (these are called pluripotent cells), but also maintain the normal turnover of regenerative organs, such as blood, skin, or intestinal tissues.

TA-65

TA-65MD is the registered trade name for a telomerase activator. The active ingredient is suspected to be a small molecule called Cycloastragenol, which is produced under GMP in the United States by Telomerase Activation Sciences, Inc. (T.A. Sciences).

Technological singularity

The technological singularity is the theoretical emergence of superintelligence through technological means. Since the capabilities of such intelligence would be difficult for an unaided human mind to comprehend, the technological singularity is seen as an occurrence beyond which events cannot be predicted. Proponents of the singularity typically state that an "intelligence explosion", where superintelligences design successive generations of increasingly powerful minds, might occur very quickly and might not stop until the agent's cognitive abilities greatly surpass that of any human.

Telomere

"A telomere is a region of repetitive nucleotide sequences at each end of a chromosome, which protects the end of the chromosome from deterioration or from fusion with neighboring chromosomes.Telomere regions deter the degradation of genes near the ends of chromosomes by allowing chromosome ends to shorten, which necessarily occurs during chromosome replication. Over time, due to each cell division, the telomere ends become shorter. During cell division, enzymes that duplicate DNA cannot continue their duplication all the way to the end of chromosomes. If cells divided without telomeres, they would lose the ends of their chromosomes, and the necessary information they contain. The telomeres are disposable buffers blocking the ends of the chromosomes, are consumed during cell division, and are replenished by an enzyme, telomerase reverse transcriptase."

Telomere

A telomere is a region of repetitive nucleotide sequences at each end of a chromosome, which protects the end of the chromosome from deterioration or from fusion with neighboring chromosomes.Telomere regions deter the degradation of genes near the ends of chromosomes by allowing chromosome ends to shorten, which necessarily occurs during chromosome replication. Over time, due to each cell division, the telomere ends become shorter. During cell division, enzymes that duplicate DNA cannot continue their duplication all the way to the end of chromosomes. If cells divided without telomeres, they would lose the ends of their chromosomes, and the necessary information they contain. The telomeres are disposable buffers blocking the ends of the chromosomes, are consumed during cell division, and are replenished by an enzyme, telomerase reverse transcriptase.

The Cancer Genome Atlas

The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) is a project to catalogue genetic mutations responsible for cancer, using genome analysis techniques started in 2005. TCGA represents an effort in the War on Cancer that is applying recently developed high-throughput genome analysis techniques and is seeking to improve our ability to diagnose, treat, and prevent cancer through a better understanding of the molecular basis of this disease.

Werner Syndrome

A rare, autosomal recessive disorder characterized by the appearance of premature aging. It affects about 1 in 100,000 in Japan, and 1 in 1-10 million outside of Japan. Werner syndrome more closely resembles accelerated aging than any other segmental progeria, so it is often referred to as a progeroid syndrome, as it partly mimics the symptoms of progeria.

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